Using Paraphrase Indicators to Avoid Plagiarism

Paraphrase indicators allow an author to indicate an upcoming paraphrase through text. Through this device, it is clear that the writer is citing another’s ideas. This is particularly important when a paper will be presented aloud to an audience who does not have access to the written text. I developed the following list of examples years ago.  In the time since, students and I have discovered that this tool does more than simply indicate ownership.  It actually allows a student to “borrow credibility” from authors who are established in their field. By including these indicators, the student’s writing becomes more academic in nature.  Credibility (and confidence) rise.

A List of Paraphrase Indicators

Hatton believes that…
Fisher accepts this argument, adding…
According to Moberg …
Fisher accredits this to the fact that….
Miller acknowledges these findings…
Marchese admits that while….
Anderson advances the idea that…
Boone advises…
Moberg advocates…
Brothers affirms…
Gard agrees…
Marsden ascertained that…
Reif appeals to his readers by….
Anderson argues…
Romanelli asserts…
Fisher assumes…
Eastman attests to this…
Hatton claims that…
Ramirez conceived…
Fisher concludes…
Stried considers…
Paulson contends…
Gard contests this, stating that…
J. Scott credits Smith with…
Hilbelink deduces…
Anderson defends these ideas…
Holmquist demonstrates…
Eastman denies the effects…
Loizzo describes…
Bauer disapproves of this approach…
Fisher disputes…
Cowell enumerates the causes…
Gard establishes…
Erickson estimates that…
Kemp expects…
Hatton explains…
Herpst expresses his concern…
Stillman echoes these concerns…
Perry favors an approach where…
Pokel feels that…
Gard finds/found that…
Kracjo furthers these arguments by…
Moberg hypothesizes…
Hatton implies…
Fisher indicates that…
Douglas infers that…
Gard interprets this as…
Erickson judges these beliefs to be…
Kealy justifies his reasoning…
Moberg maintains that…
Masterson is of the opinion that…
Whitt posits…
Douglas postulates…
Van Berkum predicts…
Erickson persuades his readers that…
Hatton presents convincing evidence that…
Peterson promotes the concept that…
Lynch proposes a different idea based on…
Taylor presumes this to be true when he…
Fisher puts forth…
Amundson reacts to these claims by…
Fisher reasons…
Cowell recommends…
Moberg recounts his own experiences in…
Westenberger regards this fact as…
Jensen refutes this…
Erickson relates additional evidence…
Bates remarks that…
Paulson reports the findings of…
Jenkins responds to this by…
Moberg says…
Ward sets forth…
Brovick shows…
Cowell speculates…
Brothers states…
Butterfield suggests…
Anderson supports…
Phillips surmises that…
Fisher suspects…
Carey tells of…
Eckert testifies…
Boone theorizes…
Brothers thinks…
Jones understands that…
Diers upholds…
Cowell urges…
Elsen voices his concerns…


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